Where and When are HIAs Necessary?

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The idea of simply applying a framework to ensure that all policies, plans, and decisions will benefit human health is appealing. The logical question then becomes: where and when should the HIA be applied?   

Geography
Where are stakeholders engaged in decision-making processes that may impact human health?

Timing
Can results from the HIA be utilized in the decision-making process?

Scale
Is the project likely to have health-related outcomes that could be detected in an HIA?

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Illustration source: Calthorpe, Peter (1993). The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. p. 45.